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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online.In microeconomics and management, the term vertical integration describes a style of management control. Vertically integrated companies are united through a hierarchy with a common owner. Usually each member of the hierarchy produces a different product or (market-specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need. It is contrasted with horizontal integration. Vertical integration is one method of avoiding the hold-up problem. A monopoly produced through vertical integration is called a vertical monopoly, although it might be more appropriate to speak of this as some form of cartel. Nineteenth century steel tycoon Andrew Carnegie introduced the idea of vertical integration. This led other businesspeople to use the system to promote better financial growth and efficiency in their companies and businesses.
0.22 x 0.15 x 0.012 m; 0.191 kg