It is well noted that biodiversity, which is an important element of natural resource, plays a key role to human survival through the provision of essential services and ecological processes. Thus, this free offerings of nature have to be used wisely in such a way that it should meet the needs and aspirations of the present generation without compromising its ability to offer the needs of the upcoming generations. However, the current indiscriminate human actions are drastically causing biodiversity crisis and collapse of associated ecosystem services to the extent of challenging the survival and continuity of life in general and human being in particular. On the other, biodiversity is a matter of international concern and a number of international negotiations and laws have been established to make sure the sustainability of biodiversity conservation. This book thus covers basic concepts and important legal aspects related to biodiversity conservation.